Le Rosart Text Light Italic
Building on the body of work forwarded by Copernicus, Kepler and Newton, 18th-century astronomers refined telescopes, produced star catalogues, and worked towards explaining the motions of heavenly bodies and the consequences of universal gravitation.
Le Rosart Text Regular
The history of science during the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the Age of Reason, when Enlightenment ideas and ideals were being disseminated across Europe and North America. Generally, the period spans from the final days of the 16th and 17th-century Scientific Revolution until roughly the 19th century, after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. The scientific revolution saw the creation of the first scientific societies and the displacement of Aristotelian natural philosophy. By the 18th century, scientific authority began to displace religious authority, and the disciplines like astrology lost scientific credibility.
Le Rosart Text Medium Italic
Around each of its poles appears a circular white patch, which visibly expands when winter prevails upon it, and rapidly contracts, sometimes almost completely disappearing, under a summer sun. From the time of Sir William Herschel the almost universal belief among astronomers has been that these gleaming polar patches on Mars are composed of snow and ice, like the similar glacial caps of the earth, and no one can look at them with a telescope and not feel the liveliest interest in the planet to which they belong, for they impart to it an appearance of likeness to our globe which is all but irresistible.
Le Rosart Text Semibold
For two reasons Mars has generally been regarded as an older planet than the earth. The first reason is that, accepting Laplaces theory of the origin of the planetary system from a series of rings left off at the periphery of the contracting solar nebula, Mars must have come into existence earlier than the earth, because, being more distant from the center of the system, the ring from which it was formed would have been separated sooner than the terrestrial ring. The second reason is that Mars being less massive than the earth has run through its developments a cooling globe rapidly.
Le Rosart Text Bold Italic
If the earth is exactly at the node at the time of new moon, the moons shadow will fall centrally upon it and will produce an eclipse visible within the torrid zone, since this is that part of the earths surface nearest the plane of its orbit. If the earth is near but not at the node, the new moon will stand a little north or south of the plane of the earths orbit, and its shadow will strike the earth farther north or south than before, producing an eclipse in the temperate or frigid zones.